The world`s major countries launched GATT in response to the waves of protectionism that crippled world trade during the Great Depression of the 1930s and helped expand it. In successive rounds of negotiations, GATT has significantly reduced tariff barriers for manufactured goods in industrialized countries. Since the beginning of GATT in 1947, average tariffs in industrialized countries have risen from about 40% to about 5% today. These reductions helped to foster the considerable expansion of world trade after the Second World War and the consequent increase in real per capita income in both developed and developing countries. The annual benefit from the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers resulting from the Uruguay Round Agreement (negotiated under GATT between 1986 and 1993) was estimated at about $96 billion, or 0.4% of world GDP. In addition to the evolution of guidelines for the development of national standards, Indonesia is developing a new infrastructure to support the management of quality systems. How this system develops and how well it complies with the principles of non-discrimination, transparency, economic efficiency and trade facilitation will have a direct impact both on long-term growth in Indonesia and on relations with the United States and other countries. In 1992, Indonesia adopted the ISO 9000 series as its national standard. As of August 1994, there were 25 private manufacturing companies and one ISO 9000 certified construction company in the service sector. Another important development is the creation of a national accreditation body in 1994 as part of the DSN. In 1994, a quality systems certification body obtained official accreditation and three applications were pending as of August 1994. Most of the large testing labs in Indonesia are state-owned and government-run, but economists don`t care about such cyclical trade deficits or surpluses. In addition, they are not worried about the emergence of a deficit because the country borrows heavily from abroad to finance investments that will be repaid later.
During the nineteenth century, the United States found itself in this position when it took a lot of money to build railroads across the continent, steel mills, and other long-term investments. But this is not the current situation in the United States. Today, it lends itself strongly to other countries to finance consumption in the short term, such as the newest and largest HDTV from Japan or South Korea, and these purchases do not generate revenue to repay its debt in the future. A certain prognosis is that international trade agreements will continue to be controversial. The second factor that can affect a country`s current account balance is the exchange rate. The exchange rate refers to the amount of currency that can be purchased by the national currency of a country. According to economic theory, one would expect the exchange rate to fall relative to its trading partners if a nation experiences a persistent trade deficit – for example, if the US has a persistent deficit, the dollar would have to buy fewer currencies like the euro or yen. . . .